2
advocated by Roncaglia. As an example I mention the input-output
models. They assume prices as given and deal with some
problems of quantities, say a multiplier analysis, on this
also
bssis. Or they start from a given final output, as Sraffa
does, and deal with prices and distribution. Again, all
Kaleckian economics always work with given and constant prices
and operate on the deflated values of macro-economic
variables. In this sense, Kalecki certainly was a classicist!
The simultaneous treatment of quantities and prices involves
non-linearities: The flex price relations are typically
non-linear ( agricultural and other primary commodities)
bottle-necks generally involve non-linearities. For an
abstract equilibrium theory this involves no trouble.
But for an applied economist such simultaneous equation systems
are not very helpful. He has to start from given initial
conditions and work out the process as it evolves in time,
for example by means of difference equations, j This is
what Paul Davidson fimpjifes when he says that economic processes
are not ergodic, that is, they do not lead to a steady state
independent of initial conditions ( I should add that even
if they are ergodic they do not converge quickly so that
they never get old enough, in practice, to reach the steady
state, being again and again interrupted by disturbances from
outside). Now if you try to work with difference or other
functional equations non-linearity will not be easy to deal
with. I have no recipe to offer, unfortunately.
In the field of micro-economics ( information approach )
Streissler has haitiLy given us much encouragement to pursue