Full text: Semantics of ownership

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defensive behaviors, but incude such concepts as possession, 
identity, markers, personalization, control and exclusive 
use (Edney, 1974). As reviewed by Edney (1974), studies of 
human territoriality have largely focused on naturalistic 
observations of territorial behaviors in institutional 
settings. The experimental studies have usually examined 
jurisdictional behaviors, i.e. temporary territorial claims. 
For example, in a recent study by Werner, Brown & Damron 
(1981), touching and SESE were found to be effective 
territorial markers in a games arcade. 
Recent work in developmental psychology also has had 
some bearing on the topic of ownership. In the area of 
language acquisition, Charney (1980) found that with girls 
between the ages of 18 months and 30 months, "my" was 
acquired before "your" or "her". More interestingly, the 
earliest uses of "my" were non-referential and were used 
with actions of claiming objects rather than to describe the 
relationship between the child and the object. In the area 
of personality development, Levine (1983) found that 
2-year-old boys with higher measures of self-definition 
would more readily claim toys. Also, Horner (1981) has 
prepared a current review of the development of personal 
space and ‘has discussed its relationship to territoriality. 
iowever, the developmental research most relevant to

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