Full text: Ownership as interpersonal dominance

recall of 9.63 (5.D. = 3.56). This may reflect either the more alien nature of the constrained 
free-recall task for the Cree, or perhaps their general taciturnity (Darnell, 1981), or perhaps the 
English-Canadian perception that the task was an IQ test, or perhaps the possibility that fewer 
of these verbs had overlapping meanings with own. The Cree produced 35 additional verbs that 
were not part of the set under study, and the English-Canadians produced an additional 42. For 
the Cree, additional verbs that were recalled by more than one person were as follows, with 
frequencies in parentheses: belong (3), borrow (3), give away (3), take (3), help defend (2), 
remember (2), and share 50/50 (2). For English-Canadians, additional verbs recalled by more 
than one person were: borrow (2), dislike (2), earn (2), give away (2), love (2), say (2), sell (2), and 
wish (2). 
Due to the low and differential rate of recall and to the production of additional verbs of 
possession, the recall data were not useful for quantitative analysis. Friedman Tests of 
differences in recall frequencies for the 24 verbs under study were statistically non-significant 
for the Cree for the adjacency measure (n=40, X=2.66, df =23, p =1.00) and for the cluster 
measure (n=40, X =10.80, df-23, p=.99). Friedman Tests on the English-Canadian data were 
similarly non-significant for the adjacency measure (n =40, X=5.28, df =23, p =1.00) and for the 
the cluster measure (n=40, X=30.74, df =23, p =.13). These non-significant statistical test 
results mean that neither the Cree nor the English-Canadlans, as groups, differentiated the 
verbs by means of the two semantic proximity measures. 
The other unconstrained psycholinguistic task was similarly disappointing for quantitative 
analysis. A summary of the responses to the query about an explanation of owning to a child 
is shown in Table 11. Again, the response rate for the Cree (Mn =1.25, $.D. =.63) was 
significantly less (F = 4.59, p <.001) than that for the English-Canadians (Mn =2.15, S.D. = 1.35). 
This may have been a result of taciturnity, but likely involved the reduction that comes of a 
translator summarizing as well as translating. The Cree introduced 10 verbs to explain own that 
were not one of the 24 under study. The most frequent of these, in English translation and with 
frequency counts in parentheses, were as follows: belong (28), be one’s own (6), have in the 
house (2), and look after ). One failure of the study was that at the time of interview, only the 
English translations of the Cree responses were recorded. There is unfortunately no record as 
to what Cree expressions were actually used. The English-Canadians introduced 20 additional 
verbs, the most frequent of which were as follows: belong (15), be yours (10), be one’s own (6),

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