Full text: The Personal Distribution of Income

or success with, the public, but the mass-media have 
pushed out the limits of growth of this hierarchy. Thus 
there is a certain analogy with the super-managers; 
Just as they have increased their range of indirect 
control of employees at the lowest grade, so the big 
stars have increased their range of communication (i.e, 
their audience), only in their case this communication 
is direct. The super managers have arisen from the growth 
of organization in the face of rigid span of control, 
while the superstars, on the contrary, have arisen from 
an enormous extension of the size of audiences. Accord 
ingly the "grade" in the case of the stars must be 
measured by the size of audience, For the managers, on 
the other hand, te grades are a sequence of random 
numbers which represent the successive spans of control* 
similarly for the teachers, technicians etc. 
How can all these consideration help us in the explana 
tion of incomes? We see a hierarchy (or hierarchies) of 
grades established in connection with the growth of 
information systems. The grade can serve as state varia 
ble in a stochastic process resulting in a kind of 
steady state hierarchy. From the grades we can derive 
the incomes provided we can plausibly assume a stochastic 
relation between the two, A complication still to be 
mastered is the fact that the grades change with the age

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